Learning the Essential Language

Adulterant: a foreign substance or chemical in an essential oil

Aromatherapy: the beneficial and aromatic use of essential oils

Botanical: the name of the plant from which the essential oil is derived

Blend: a mixture of essential oil and carrier oil

Carrier Oil: a vegetable, seed, or nut oil commonly mixed with an essential oil to lessen the essential oil’s potency

Chemotype: a chemically distinct entity in a plant or microorganism, with differences in the composition of the secondary metabolites

Cold Press: an extraction method using a centrifuge to separate the natural oil from the skin or peel of a fruit

Constituent: a component or substance found in an essential oil

Diffuser: device used to disperse essential oil molecules through the air, so that their aroma and beneficial properties fill an area

Dilution: the process of making an essential oil not as concentrated, by adding carrier oil

Distillation: the action of purifying a liquid by a process of heating and/or

Essential Oil: the aroma and beneficial properties of a plant condensed into a highly concentrated liquid

Extraction: the process of obtaining the essential oil from its plant source

F.C.O .: an abbreviation used for fractionated coconut oil, a stainless and scentless carrier oil commonly used for blending purposes; this carrier oil is a “fraction” of coconut oil that remains liquid at room temperature unlike coconut oil found in a grocery store

GC/MS test: an abbreviation for the gas chromatography mass spectrometry test used to expose all constituents of an oil and show if an oil is pure

Hot Oils: oils that can cause a burning sensation when applied directly to the skin without a carrier oil

Neat: a combination of single essential oils, no carrier oil

Patch Test: for first time use of an essential oil, a safe practice is to place a drop of diluted essential oil to a small area of skin such as the inside of the elbow. After application, be aware of adverse reactions for the first 24 hours. Possibly reactions include skin irritation, headache, nausea, respiratory complaints, or dizziness

Phototoxic: some essential oils are phototoxic. Making the skin more sensitive to the damage caused by UV rays. When a phototoxic oil is applied topically avoid sun and tanning bed exposure for up to 24 hours. (examples citrus oils like Lemon , Bergamot and Lime )

Potency: the aromatic and therapeutic strength of an essential oil Refined: impurities or unwanted elements removed through processing Single: term used for an essential oil, nothing else added

Synergy: a combination of multiple single oils, no carrier oil added Topical application : the process of gently massaging essential oils into the skin to receive the beneficial properties

Unrefined: not processed to remove impurities or unwanted elements


Essential Oils Shelf Life


Here is a basic break down for the shelf life of your essential oils.

Degradation comes about from three main ways: oxygen, heat, and light. For this reason it is best to store your essential oils in the refrigerator.

You should halve these guidelines for oils if they are not stored in a refrigerator:

In general, shelf life is determined by the chemical composition of the essential oils, some of which oxidize or evaporate faster than others.

The E.Os which have a lot of monoterpenes or oxides have the shortest shelf life, which is around about 1 -2 years.

E.O.s which contain a lot of phenols may last up to 3 years .
The E.O.s that contain ketones, monoterpenols, and/or esters usually have a shelf life of 4-5 years.

The E.O.s that contain lots of sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenols which can last up to 6 years.


Common Essential OIls Shelf Life

1 year:

  • Lemon Citrus x limon, Citrus limonum
  • Orange (sweet) Citrus sinensis, Citrus aurantium var. Sinensis
  • Mandarin Citrus reticulata, Citrus nobilis

2 years:

  • Frankincense Boswellia frereana, Boswellia papyrifera, Boswellia sacra (Boswellia carteri), Boswellia serrata, Boswellia neglecta, Boswellia rivae
  •  Lime Citrus x aurantifolia, Citrus x latifolia
  • Tea Tree Melaleuca alternifolia

3 years:

  • Basil (sweet) Ocimum basilicum
  • Bergamot Citrus bergamia
  • Blue Tansy Tanacetum annuum
  • Elemi Canarium luzonicum, Canarium vulgare
  • Fennel (sweet) Foeniculum vulgare
  • Juniper Berry Juniperus communis
  • Melissa Melissa officinalis
  • Oregano Origanum onites, Origanum vulgare, Thymbra capitata
  • Rosalina Melaleuca ericifolia
  • Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis ct camphor

4 years:

  • Cardamom Elettaria cardamomum
  • Cinnamon Bark Cinnamomum verum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum
  • Chamomile, German Matricaria recutita
  • Clary Sage Salvia sclarea
  • Geranium Pelargonium roseum x asperum
  • Helichrysum Helichrysum italicum, Helichrysum angustifolium, Helichrysum stoechas
  • Lavender Lavandula angustifolia
  • Peppermint Mentha x piperita
  • Spearmint Mentha cardiaca, Mentha crispa, Mentha viridis
  • Ylang Ylang Cananga odorata

5 - 6 years:

  • Copaiba Copaifera officinalis, Copaigera langsdorfii
  • Ginger Zingiber officinale
  • Myrrh Commiphora myrrha, Commiphora molmol
  • Pepper (black) Piper nigrum
  • Rose (otto) Rosa damascena
  • Valerian Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana fauriei
  • Wintergreen Gaultheria fragmentissima, Gaultheria procumbens

6 + years:

  • Vetiver Vetiveria zizanoides, Andropogon muricatus, Andropogon zizanoides, Chrysopogon zizanoides, Phalaris zizanoides
  • Sandalwood (East Indian) Santalum album
  • Patchouli Pogostemom cablin, Pogostemon patchouly
  • Cedarwood Juniperus virginiana

The Essential Essential Oils

Tea tree E.O.(Melaleuca alternifolia)

Great for:

  • Acne
  • Hair and dandruff
  • Cleaning products
  • Skin problems
  • Toenail fungus and ringworm
  • Mold
  • Deodorant
  • Infections and cuts

Lavender( Lavendula Angustifolia)

Great for:

  • Antioxidant protection
  • Diabetes treatment
  • Improves mood
  • Heals burns and cuts
  • Beneficial for skin
  • Headaches
  • Insomnia
  • Air freshener/cleaning

Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis)

Great for:

  • Memory
  • Concentration
  • Pain
  • Hair growth

Chamomile Roman( Anthemis Nobilis)

Great for:

  • Calming
  • Natural allergy reliever
  • PMS symptoms
  • Insomnia
  • Skin disorders
  • Pain

Frankincense(Boswellia Carterii)

Great for:

  • Stress reliever
  • Natural cleaner
  • Astringent
  • Stomach problems
  • Skin disorders
  • Natural cold/flu medicine
  • Pain

Peppermint(Mentha Piperita)

Great for:

  • Cooling
  • Stomach aches
  • halitosis(bad breath)
  • Headaches
  • Pain
  • Concentration

Cardamom(Elettaria Cardamomum)

Great for:

  • Bad breath
  • Cavities
  • Energising
  • Bacteria
  • Fungii
  • Pain and inflammation
  • Digestive problems

Geranium(Pelargonium Graveolens)

Great for:

  • Stress and depression
  • Skin
  • cuts/abrasions/injuries
  • Infections
  • Deodorant
  • Nerve painkiller

Thyme Linalol(Thymus Vulgaris Ct. Linanool)

Great for:

  • Bacteria
  • Fungii
  • Sore throats
  • High bl.pressure
  • coughs/bronchitis
  • Prevents food poisoning

Lemon(Citrus Limon)

Great for:

  • Cleaning
  • Bad breath
  • Quenches thirst
  • Stomach problems
  • cleansing

Eucalyptus Radiata(Eucalyptus Radiata)

Great for:

  • colds/flus
  • Home cleaning
  • energising/stimulating
  • Cuts
  • bites/stings

Common Essential oils and their perfumery

Essential Oil Perfumery notes
Angelica Base
Anise Top
Basil Top
Bay Middle
Bergamot Top
Boronia Top
Cajuput  Middle
Camphor Middle
Cardamom  Middle
Carrot seed  Middle
Cedarwood, atlas  Base
Cedarwood, Virginia  Base
Chamomile, German  Middle
Chamomile, Roman  Middle
Cinnamon  Base
Citronella  Top
Clary Sage  Middle
Clove  Base/Middle
Coriander  Middle
Cypress  Middle
Dill  Middle
Eucalyptus Radiata  Middle
Fennel  Middle/Top
Frankincense  Base
Geranium  Middle
Geranium, rose  Middle
Ginger  Base/Middle
Grapefruit  Top
Helichrysum  Base
Jasmine  Base
Juniper Berry  Middle
Lavender Middle
Lemon  Top
Lemongrass  Top
Lime  Top
Marjoram  Middle
Myrrh  Base
Myrtle  Middle/Top
Neroli  Base
Nutmeg  Middle
Orange, bitter  Top
Orange, sweet  Top
Oregano  Middle
Palmarosa  Middle
Parsley Middle
Patchouli  Base
Pepper, black  Base/Middle
Peppermint  Top
Petitgrain  Top
Pine  Middle
Rose  Base
Rosemary  Middle
Rosewood Middle
Sandalwood  Base
Spearmint  Top
Tangerine  Top
Tea Tree  Middle/Top
Thyme  Middle
Vanilla  Base
Vetiver  Base
Violet Leaf  Middle
Yarrow  Middle
Ylang Ylang Base/Middle


Essential Oil Blending Basics


Essential oils can be categorized into separate groups based on their

  • Floral
  • (i.e. Lavender, Rose, Jasmine)
  • Woodsy
  • (i.e. Pine, Cedar, Sandalwood)
  • Earthy
  • (i.e. Vetiver, Patchouli)
  • Herbaceous
  • (i.e. Rosemary, Basil)
  • Minty
  • (i.e. Peppermint, Spearmint)
  • Medicinal/Camphorous
  • (i.e. Eucalyptus,Tea Tree)
  • Spicy
  • (i.e. Clove, Cinnamon)
  • Oriental
  • (i.e. Ginger, Patchouli)
  • Citrus
  • (i.e. Orange, Lemon,)

Oils in the same category generally blend well together.

As a General Rule:


  • Florals blend well with spicy, citrusy and woodsy oils.
  • Woodsy oils generally blend well with all categories.
  • Spicy and oriental oils blend well with florals, oriental and citrus oils.
  • Minty oils blend well with citrus, woodsy, herbaceous and earthy oils.

The Top,Middle and Base Notes in


  • Oils that evaporate the quickest, usually within 1-2 hours, are called “top notes.”
  • Oils that evaporate with 2-4 hours are considered “middle notes.”
  • Oils that take the longest time to evaporate are referred to as “base notes.”

Blending Tips


Blending does not have hard and fast rules that must be followed. There
are some basics but this is why it is so fun,it is both an art and a science
and you will enjoy having fun experimenting.

  • When creating a new blend, start out small with a total number of drops of either 5, 10, 20 or 25 drops. 25 drops should be the most that you start with. By starting small, you waste less oil in your blending experiments.
  • Start off your blending experiments by creating blends that are made

up in the following ratio(more or less):

  • 30% of the oils are top notes
  • 50% are middle notes
  • 20% are base notes.

Carrier Oils for massages
Carrier Oils and their Qualities


When you choose a carrier oil make sure that it is 100% pure, cold pressed
and unrefined.


1% dilution: 1 tsp carrier oil with 1 drop essential oil(E.O)
5% dilution: 1 tsp carrier oil with 5 drops essential oil(E.O)

Apricot Kernel Oil:

as the name suggests, it is from the kernel of the apricot. It is light yellow in color, is a light oil and absorbs well. Rich in vitamins A, B and E which are great for skin rejuvenation. This oil is great for sensitive skin types, great for the face, leaves the skin feeling silky smooth and is a great moisturizer.

Avocado Oil:

This oil is rich in vitamins A, D and E and is packed with essential fatty acids. It is great for face absorbs well and help cell regeneration so is very good for mature skin.Grape Seed oil:

Is an astringent so is good for toning and tightening the skin.

Wheat germ oil:

This oil is super rich in vitamin E which makes it great for your skin to regenerate it and give it a healthy glow.

Coconut oil:

a perfect oil to moisturize the skin and also is great for the hair. It is very calming to the skin so great for skin conditions that are inflamed.

Jojoba oil:

This is my 'go-to' oil for hair and skin problems. It is great for all skin types and gives a nice healthy glow to the skin. It absorbs very well. This is very good for acne and oily scalp because excess sebum is dissolved in jojoba. It is also very good for muscular and joint pains and is very soothing for inflammatory skin conditions such as dermatitis, eczema and psoriasis.

Rosehip oil:

Here is another fabulous carrier oil for the skin. It is made
from cold pressing the seeds of rose hips. It is great for cell regeneration, is
anti-aging, very calming for inflammatory skin conditions and is also good
for PMS and menopause. You can also combine it with calendula oil to
treat stretch marks and scars.

Calendula oil:

Here is a very calming and soothing oil. It is great for oily skin and can be used as is, or blended with other oils.

Evening primrose oil:

A very well known oil because of it's calming properties on the skin. It is a great moisturizer and skin softener as well.

Sweet almond oil:

This is the most widely used carrier oil for massage. It is moisturizing and absorbs very well. It is also rich in vitamin D. It is great for all skin types and especially good for inflammatory skin disorders


Massage Oil blends

Here are lots of great blends for you.

Get the ingredients and blend them together.

You can also choose which carrier oil you would like based on the qualities I have given you or use my recipes.

You may also heat the oils gently for the client especially good if the weather is cold

Luxurious lavender blend

I love lavender so much and although this is not a blend of EOs it is great for massages.

25 drops lavender
75mls carrier oil of your choice

The Gentlemen's blend

60 mls sweet almond oil ( soothing for skin )
60 mls grape seed oil ( tonifies and tones skin)
5 drops sandalwood EO( I love this oil. It is very very relaxing)
5 drops bay oil ( great for those aches and pains)
3 drops bergamot oil ( stimulating oil which balances well with the depth of the sandalwood and bay oils)
3 drops any citrus oil ( you could use lemon, orange, mandarin, lime etc to give a real lift to the blend)

Soothe my feet blend

For that person that wants their feet to feel stimulated, soothed and fresh
again. Here is a treat for the feet.

30 mls carrier oil
5 drops peppermint oil
2 drops wintergreen oil
2 drops rosemary oil

Honeymoon blend

Here is a blend that will 'get things going' so to speak.

60 mls carrier oil
10 drops patchouli oil
10 drops orange or lemon oil
5 drops vanilla oil( vanilla oil promotes arousal)

Drift away relaxation blend

Here is a great blend for someone that is stressed and has aches and pains, tight shoulders and neck etc. This blend will soothe their muscles, relax their nerves and also regenerate them with the addition of bergamot as it is uplifting.

60 mls carrier oil
15 drops lavender oil
5 drops rosemary oil
5 drops bergamot

Sweet dreams blend

When all you want to do is have a beautiful night's sleep and wake up feeling great. This is the blend for you. These oils are soothing, calming and will have you sleeping like a baby

60 mls carrier oil
5 drops chamomile oil
5 drops jasmine oil
2 drops rose oil
2 drops lavender oil

When you need to look your best blend

Here is an anti-aging blend that will have you looking, feeling and smelling

30 mls carrier oil
30 mls rosehip oil
10 drops lavender oil
10 drops patchouli oil
5 drops rose oil

Menopause relief blend

If you have a client that needs help with menopausal symptoms try this

30 mls carrier oil
10 drops lime oil
5 drops sage oil
5 drops thyme oil

Double Boilers

  • are used for making our balms and salves
  • If you don't have one you have use a pot and put a pyrex dish or something similar within the pot to make your own


  • You want to buy raw honey, not pasteurized
  • Manuka honey is from bees that feed off the manuka flowers and it is very therapeutic. You can buy it online.

 Essential Oils Safety Guidelines

Essential oils make up one of nature’s powerful tools to enhance our living and wellbeing. They really are amazing! However, because these oils are so potent and powerful, they can be dangerous if not used correctly. To help your family enjoy all of the benefits of essential oils, simply follow the guidelines below:

  • Keep all essential oils out of reach of children
  • Avoid applying essential oils directly on the skin (neat), unless advised by an expert. Otherwise, please use a carrier oil.
  • If skin irritation or rash is observed after using an essential oil, discontinue use.
  • Keep essential oil away from the eye area.
  • Avoid sun exposure or tanning booths for twenty-four hours after applying any photosensitizing, phototoxic essential oil topically.
  • Keep essential oils away from open flames as they are flammable substances.
  • Reduce the chance of sensitization from prolonged use of the same essential oil.
  • If you have allergies or sensitive skin, or you are using a new oil for the first time, please patch test by applying only a couple drops on a quarter-sized area of the skin.
  • If you are trying to become pregnant, are pregnant or are currently breastfeeding, please take caution when using the oils.
  • When using essential oils on children take extra care. Make sure to dilute heavily and use essential oils that are age appropriate.


Ounces -> Milliliters
Ounces    Milliliters
1/8th oz    3.75 ml
1/4th oz    7.5 ml
1/2 oz      15 ml
1 oz         30 ml
4 oz         120 ml
8 oz         237 ml
16 oz       473 ml


Ounce -> Drops
Ounces    Drops
1/8th oz    75 drops
1/4th oz    150 drops
1/2 oz       300 drops
1 oz          600 drops


Essential oils are very strong and should be diluted (usually in a carrier oil) or incorporated into a finished product such as a massage oil, lotion, or aroma spray. Whether diluting an essential oil or adding it to a finished product, the oil content should only account for 1% to 2% of the total blend. Here's an easy guide for how much essential oil to add to 1 oz of carrier oil or to a finished product. These dilutions for 1 oz can be easily multiplied for larger batches of finished product or divided for a fraction of an ounce.

1 oz = 30 ml = 600 drops of oil
1% of 600 drops is 6
Add 6 drops of essential oil for 1 oz of carrier oil or finished product.

1 oz = 30 ml = 600 drops of oil
2% of 600 drops is 12
Add 12 drops of essential oil for 1 oz of carrier oil or finished product.